Job Analysis


Job analysis is the process of collecting job related information – duties, responsibilities, skills and knowledge associated to a particular job. In job analysis, information about a job is collected and not about the incumbent. Such information helps in the preparation of job description and job specification. In other words, the process of job analysis results in two sets of data: 

(i) Job description – indicates what all a given job involves i.e. job title, tasks, duties & responsibilities related to a job,, machines and equipment involved, working conditions and hazards surrounding a job, and other related information.

(ii) Job Specification- involves capabilities that the job-holder should possess i.e. education, experience, training, skills, communication skills generally form part of Job Specification.  

In short, job description implies objectively listing of the job title, tasks, duties and responsibilities involved in a job, while Job specifications involves listing of employee qualifications, skills and abilities needed to do the job satisfactorily.

Uses of Job Analysis: Job related data collected from a job analysis process are useful in Human Resource Planning (HRP), Recruitment and Selection, Training and Development, Job Evaluation, Performance Appraisal, Remuneration, Computerized Personnel Information Management, Safety and Health etc.


The following methods are used for collecting Job-related data:

  • Interviews – The data analyst interviews the job holder and his supervisor to get information about the job. A structured interview form is generally used to record the information.  
  • Questionnaire – In this method a standard and fully structured questionnaire is used to collect information from a job holder.
  • Diary method – In this method, the job holder records in detail his/her own daily activities at work and hands over the diary to a data analyst.
  • Observational method – In observational method, the job analyst closely observes the job holder at work and record what he/she does, how he/she does and how much time is needed to accomplish a given task.
  • Checklists – In this method, a predefined checklist is used to elicit job-related information from the job-holder.

Apart from the above narrative approaches to collect job-related data, there are some quantitative approaches as well. The three most popular quantitative methods of job analysis are:

  1. Position Analysis Questionnaire (PAQ): It is a highly specialized technique for analyzing any job in terms of employee activities. The rating scale used in the Position Analysis Questionnaire contains 194 job elements, grouped into 6 broad categories, on which a job is created depending upon the degree to which an element is present.
  2. Management Position Description Questionnaire (MPDQ): In this method also, a highly structured questionnaire containing 208 items grouped into 13 general categories are used to collect information.
  3. Functional Job Analysis (FJA): This is a worker-oriented job analysis approach in which the functions of a job holder at work are described in detail.

Self-Check Exercises

1.The Position Analysis Questionnaire (PAQ) for job analysis is __.

Answer: (B) Quantitative technique

2. Determining the type of people, which a company needs for job, is referred as __.

Answer: (B) Job specification

3. A Job analysis consists of __.

Answer: (C) Both A and B

4. A list, consisting of job duties and responsibilities, form part of __.

Answer: (A) Job descriptions

5. Which among the following are the quantitative techniques for collecting job analysis data?

Answer: (D) All the above

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